The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
Footnotes:
  1. "About D.A.R.E.," www.dare.com (accessed June 6, 2016)

  2. "New D.A.R.E.: Substance Abuse and Violence Prevention Inside the 21st Century School House," www.tennessee.gov, July 20, 2004

  3. "The D.A.R.E. Mission," www.dare.com (accessed Feb. 4, 2010)

  4. Edward Shepard, PhD, "A New Study Finds... We Wasted Billions on D.A.R.E.," ReconsiDer Quarterly, Winter 2001-2002

  5. Dennis Rosenbaum, PhD, "Just Say No to D.A.R.E.," Criminology & Public Policy, Nov. 29, 2007

  6. "Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General," Office of the Surgeon General, US Department of Health & Human Services website, 2001

  7. Zili Sloboda, ScD, et al., "The Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study: A Randomized Field Trial of a Universal Substance Abuse Prevention Program," Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Jan. 21, 2009

  8. "Study Shows New DARE Program Helps Youths Decide against Using Drugs," Press Release, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website, Oct. 29, 2002

  9. "The New D.A.R.E. Junior High/Middle School Curriculum," www.dare.org (accessed Jan. 22, 2010)

  10. Sarah Birkeland, Erin Murphy-Graham, and Carol Weiss, "Good Reasons for Ignoring Good Evaluation: The Case of the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) Program," Evaluation and Program Planning, Aug. 2005

  11. Dennis Rosenbaum, PhD, and Gordon Hanson, PhD, "Assessing the Effects of School-based Drug Education: A 6-year Multilevel Analysis of Project D.A.R.E.," Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Nov. 1998

  12. Julie Sherwood, "The DARE Debate," Daily Messenger, Aug. 10, 2008

  13. Ariel Kalishman, "D.A.R.E. Fact Sheet," Drug Policy Alliance website, Apr. 2003

  14. Erica C. Barnett, "The DARE Debate," weeklywire.com, Aug. 17, 1998

  15. "National D.A.R.E. Day," www.dare.com, Apr. 8, 2009

  16. "Exemplary and Promising Safe, Disciplined, and Drug-Free Schools Programs 2001," US Department of Education website, Apr. 2001

  17. "National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices," Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) website (accessed Feb. 2, 2010)

  18. "25 Years D.A.R.E. America," www.dare.com (accessed Jan. 28, 2010)

  19. "Form 990," guidestar.org, 2008

  20. Kate Zernike, "Antidrug Program Says It Will Adopt a New Strategy," New York Times, Feb. 15, 2001

  21. "Keepin' It REAL," National Registry of Evidence Programs and Practices (NREPP), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) website, Dec. 2006

  22. "Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program: Notice of Final Principles of Effectiveness," Department of Education website, June 1, 1998

  23. Augustine Hammond, PhD, et al., "Do Adolescents Perceive Police Officers as Credible Instructors of Substance Abuse Prevention Programs," Health Education Research, Aug. 2008

  24. "D.A.R.E.: Drug Abuse Resistance Education: National Client Survey 2007," Royal Canadian Mounted Police Survey, www.dare.com, 2007

  25. "National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse XI: Teens and Parents," (941 KB) National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University website, Aug. 2006

  26. Lloyd D. Johnston, PhD, et al., "Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, Overview of Key Findings, 2008," (971 KB) monitoringthefuture.org, May 2009

  27. "Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Messages and Substance Use among Adolescents: 2002 to 2007," (251 KB) National Survey on Drug Use and Health: The NSDUH Report, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) website, Apr. 2, 2009

  28. Marjorie E. Kanof, "Youth Illicit Drug Use Prevention: DARE Long-Term Evaluations and Federal Efforts to Identify Effective Programs," (328 KB) US Government Accountability Office website, Jan. 15, 2003

  29. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, "Keepin' It Real," nrepp.samhsa.gov (accessed Sep. 17, 2013)

  30. Zili Sloboda, "A New D.A.R.E. Curriculum Gets Mixed Reviews," Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website, Mar. 17, 2010

  31. Nasar U. Ahmed, Noushin S. Ahmed, C. Ray Bennett, and Joseph E. Hinds, "Impact of a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) Program in Preventing the Initiation of Cigarette Smoking in Fifth- and Sixth-Grade Students," Journal of the National Medical Association, Apr. 2002

  32. Christopher L. Ringwalt et. al, "Past and Future Directions of the D.A.R.E. Program: An Evaluation Review," ncjrs.gov, Dec. 20, 1994

  33. Amy A. Vincus et al., "A Short-Term, Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of D.A.R.E's Revised Elementary School Curriculum," Journal of Drug Education, 2010

  34. "Form 990," guidestar.org, 2011

  35. Andrew Seidman, "N.J. School Drug-Abuse Prevention Group in Conflict with National D.A.R.E. Program," articles.philly.com, Jan. 8, 2013

  36. Steven West, PhD, and Keri K. O'Neal, PhD, "Project D.A.R.E. Outcome Effectiveness Revisited," American Journal of Public Health, June 2004

  37. Susan T. Ennett et al., "Resistance Education? A Meta-Analysis of Project D.A.R.E. Outcome Evaluations," American Journal of Public Health, 1994

  38. Renee D. Singh et al., "A Summary and Synthesis of Contemporary Empirical Evidence Regarding the Effects of the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program," Contemporary School Psychology, 2011

  39. Elvira Elek, David Am Wagstaff, and Michael L. Hecht, "Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the Keepin' It REAL Substance Use Prevention Curriculum," Journal of Drug Education, 2010

  40. Donald R. Lynam et al., "Project DARE: No Effects at 10-Year Follow-Up," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Aug. 1999

  41. Maia Szalavitz, "DARE to Follow the Data," cannabisnews.com, Sep. 25, 2000

  42. Denise Hamilton, "The Truth about DARE: The Big-Bucks Antidrug Program for Kids Doesn't Work," Los Angeles New Times, Mar. 20, 1997

  43. Scott O. Lilienfeld, "Psychological Treatments that Casue Harm," Perspectives on Psychological Science, Mar. 2007

  44. D.A.R.E. America, "Change of Leadership at D.A.R.E. America," prweb.com, Dec. 19, 2012

  45. Patricia Dustman, "Keepin' it REAL," dropoutprevention.org, 2009

  46. Flavio F. Marsiglia, "Keepin' it REAL," Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention website, Apr. 2012

  47. E-mail from Scott Gilliam, Director of Training for D.A.R.E. America, Nov. 15, 2013


Sources:

Brian Braiker, "'Just Say Know': An Advocate of Drug Law Reform Says D.A.R.E. Is a 20-year Old Failure," Apr. 15, 2003

Richard Clayton, PhD, et al., "The Effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (Project D.A.R.E.): 5-year Follow Up Results," Preventative Medicine, May 1996

"D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education)," East Baton Rouge Parish Sheriff's Office website (accessed Jan. 15, 2010)

"D.A.R.E. Arkansas," darearkansas.com (accessed Jan. 13, 2010)

"Drug Abuse Resistance Education," Fairview Heights Illinois Police Department website (accessed Jan. 12, 2010)

Allison Gruner Gandhi, PhD, et al., "The Devil Is in the Details: Examining the Evidence for 'Proven' School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs," Evaluation Review, Feb. 2007

Don C. Des Jarlais, PhD, et al., "Diffusion of the D.A.R.E. and Syringe Exchange Programs," American Journal of Public Health, Aug. 2006

Lloyd D. Johnston, PhD, et al., "Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2008: Vol. 1: Secondary School Students," monitoringthefuture.org, Sep. 2009

Wayne L. Lucas, PhD, "Parents' Perceptions of the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (DARE)," Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, Aug. 2008

Jeffrey C. Merrill, MPH, et al., "Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure: A Survey-based Study of the Organizational Structure and Function of the D.A.R.E. Program," Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, Sep. 6, 2006

David Miller, "DARE Reinvents Itself - with Help from Its Social-Scientist Critics," Chronicle of Higher Education, Oct. 19, 2001

"Overview: Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools," OSDFS website (accessed Jan. 18, 2010)

Christopher Ringwalt, DrPH, et al., "Past and Future Directions of the D.A.R.E. Program: An Evaluation Review," Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice website, Sep. 1994

"The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Advisory Committee Meeting," US Department of Education website, Aug. 21-22, 2006

Dennis L. Thombs, PhD, "Retrospective Study of DARE: Substantive Effects not Detected in Undergraduates," Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, Fall 2000

Carol Hischon Weiss, PhD, et al., "An Alternate Route to Policy Influence: How Evaluations Affect DARE," American Journal of Evaluation, Mar. 2005

Steven West, PhD, and Keri K. O'Neal, PhD, "Project D.A.R.E. Outcome Effectiveness Revisited," American Journal of Public Health, June 2004